The assassination of General Soleimani is just one of the episodes of the protracted conflict between Washington and Tehran have been going on for decades. DW – about the main stages and facts of the American-Iranian confrontation.
1953-1981 years: a revolution for the sake of oil
On 19 August 1953 in Iran was a coup: elected Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh replaced by Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi. The coup was organized by special services of the USA and the UK – Mossadegh tried to nationalize Iranian oil, which at that time was extracted only from British companies.
Mossadegh after the coup until his death kept under house arrest, but his plans for the nationalization of oil had a lot of support in the country. The monstrous gap between rich and poor, corruption, lack of structural reforms and consistent political program of the Shah led to the growing discontent of the population, more intensified after the opposition stood a radical of the Shiite clergy and its leader Ayatollah Khomeini. In 1979 this resulted in the Islamic revolution to power in the result it came to Islamic fundamentalists. 16 January 1979 Shah Pahlavi fled the country, and in November the Iranians seized the U.S. Embassy in Tehran.
The part of the Americans were soon released, but 52 of Embassy employee held in Iran until January 20, 1981. Their subsequent release was much later in the story of the famous film “Operation “Argo”. As a result of the revolution, the U.S. imposed on Iran a package of economic sanctions, which only increased, and ceased diplomatic relations with the country.
2006-2013: sanctions against nuclear program
In February 2006, Iran resumed work on uranium enrichment, which was actually stopped after the Islamic revolution due to the unstable situation in the region. In Washington it was seen as an attempt by the Iranian leadership to take a step towards the creation of nuclear weapons, causing the U.S. and the UN imposed another package of sanctions against Iranian companies and banks, related to the nuclear program. The sanctions also forbade any country in the world to supply Iran with equipment and materials for work in the field of nuclear energy.
In subsequent years, especially after the election of Barack Obama President of the United States in 2009, American policy towards Iran was a combination of tightening sanctions in a number of areas with simultaneous easing of restrictions in others. This tactic had an effect – elected in August 2013, Iranian President Hassan Rouhani has promised to “minimize” the nuclear program in the country in exchange for the lifting of sanctions.
2015 -2018 years: distrust trump destroys the ” nuclear deal “
14, 2015 statement by Rouhani was secured for a Joint comprehensive plan of action (AGREEMENT) – the agreement signed by the EU, UK, US, Russia, China, France and Iran. According to the document, Iran had to abandon the development of nuclear weapons, and U.S. and UN to remove the sanctions.
Entered the office of the President of USA in 2017, Donald trump said he wants to get out of this “nuclear deal” – according to his assurances, Iran has not complied with the terms of the agreement. Despite these, the IAEA, confirming the execution by Iran of the Treaty, may 8, 2018, the US has announced the release of the SVPD and new sanctions against Iran and threatened sanctions to all countries that purchase oil from Iran.
In July 2018, Rouhani said that us sanctions aims at destroying Iran as a country, not to fight terrorism, and threatened to pull out of nuclear deal. The EU supported at the moment Tehran is proposing a number of measures that would continue the establishment of economic relations with Iran. Rouhani agreed to stay in a “bargain” if the program will be implemented until July 2019.
April-July, 2019: US classifies Soleimani terrorists
8 April 2019 the administration of the tramp was officially considered to be terrorist organizations, the Islamic revolutionary guard Corps (IRGC), part of the armed forces of Iran. In a statement, trump called Iran “a state sponsor of terrorists” and the IRGC and its subsidiary “al-Quds”, which was led by Qassem Soleimani – terrorist organizations. Iran, in response, also called the U.S. a “sponsor of terrorists”.
13 June 2019, the group of unknown persons came in a boat to two oil tankers in the Gulf of Oman, attached to their sides of the explosive devices and blew them up. The us military said that the boat of the raiders were one of the boats of the IRGC. In addition, the United States accused the Iranian side in similar undermining of the two Saudi oil tankers a month earlier, Saudi Arabia is also in confrontation with Iran.
In July 2019 the expired term of the ultimatum to Iran on a nuclear deal. The EU has failed to find a compromise with Tehran, and Iran announced the phased withdrawal from the agreement and the resumption of research on uranium enrichment.
December 2019: the United States is attacking base ” Hezbollah “
27 Dec 2019 unknown fired at one of us military bases in Iraq – on the basis of more than 30 missiles, and the shelling killed a civilian specialist from the USA, and also wounded two Iraqi and four American soldiers. The US blamed the attack on Hezbollah, the Lebanese paramilitary organization, participation in the creation of which was the IRGC. “Hezbollah” is recognized as a terrorist organization by the US and some other countries, Russia is not among them.
30 Dec USA in response fired at strong points “Hezbollah” in Iraq and Syria, according to official data, the attack killed 19 people. The reaction of supporters of Hizbullah at this resulted in the storming of the us Embassy in Baghdad on 31 December. Protesters seized the perimeter of the Embassy and left it a “green zone” just for the next day.
January 2020: the murder of süleymaniye and its consequences
A response to the shelling of the base and the seizure of the U.S. Embassy was the killing of General Qassem Soleimani. 3 January 2020 the car with him and several other military was destroyed by a missile strike in Baghdad international airport.
The next day Tehran vowed to avenge the murder Soleimani, and even a day later Iraqi MPs voted for the withdrawal of U.S. troops from the country. Donald trump, in turn, declared that isn’t going to do it, while Iraq does not compensate for the cost built by the Americans military bases, and promised to send to the region three thousand soldiers in addition to five thousand that are out there. Also, the President of the United States promised Iran to strike at 52 “cultural objects” of Iran in case of hostilities – the number captured during the Islamic revolution, the U.S. Embassy staff in Tehran.
8 Jan 2020, after the funeral Soleimani, on the basis of the U.S. air force “ain al-Assad” had suffered rocket attacks. The IRGC announced that the attack was an act of retaliation for the murder of the General. In Washington in response said that the attack there were no casualties, and promised to introduce new sanctions against Iran. The President trump urged the Iranian leadership to resolve the conflict peacefully. However, one of the key messages of the appeal of the American President that day was a promise that while he was in power in the United States, Iran will become a nuclear power.