Thermal injury – a group of pathological States which are caused by overexposure to the high temperature environment and the inability of the body to effective thermoregulation.
Manifestations of thermal lesions can vary from mild (heat rash, heat stress) to severe (heat stroke) because tolerance to high temperatures is different for each person. Reaction to overheating depends on many factors such as General health, ventilation, water balance and the ability to acclimatization (adaptation to temperature changes in a short time).
The types of thermal lesions
Heat stress is a mild form of thermal destruction. It manifests as physical exhaustion and discomfort acquired as a result of long stay in the heat or indoors with high air temperature. The symptoms are usually not severe, the body temperature remains within normal limits.
Heat exhaustion – a condition of average weight, which is manifested by increased body temperature (in the range 37-40 ° C). Symptoms include thirst, headache, weakness, transient loss of consciousness, vomiting, and dizziness. Often accompanied by dehydration and profuse sweating, and tachycardia and sudden decrease in blood pressure. An important feature of this condition that distinguishes it from a heat stroke is the absence of disorders of the Central nervous system (CNS) and dysfunction of the internal organs.
Treatment includes physical rest, the removal of excess clothing, and sports equipment, move the victim to a room with a low air temperature and oral or intravenous rehydration. Cooling methods can include a cool shower or apply cold compresses.
In case of untimely detection of heat exhaustion can advance to heat stroke.
Heat stroke – a severe manifestation of thermal injury and a result of a breach of thermoregulation. It is a condition that is life threatening and is characterized by an elevation of body temperature above 40 ° C, which is accompanied by dysfunction of the Central nervous system and arises from excessive stay in the environment with high temperature. CNS disorders can manifest as agitation, disorientation, delirium or coma. It is important to distinguish heat stroke from heat exhaustion, because outwardly, these States may be similar.
Most often, victims of heat strokes and other damage associated with high temperatures, becoming teenagers, sports enthusiasts, and small children left unattended in vehicles or other places with high temperatures.
In order to protect yourself from overheating, in addition to protecting clothing, don’t forget to drink enough water and relax in the cool. If you suspect heat exhaustion or heat stroke you must immediately cool the victim.
How to avoid thermal injury in a child
- Going outside on a hot summer day, be sure to wear baby bright hat and light clothing made of natural fabrics. Stay cool in the hot days in direct sunlight with children under one year.
- Remember that children with fair skin are more likely to sunburn of the skin and eyes than brown. Avoid sun exposure during the hottest time of the year in the period from 10 to 15 hours. Even on cloudy days the ultraviolet rays of the sun fall on the naked skin and can damage it.
- 20-30 minutes to walk to apply on exposed skin child sunscreen with a protection factor of at least 25-30 units. Don’t forget to re-apply the cream every 2 hours spent on the street and additionally after bathing.
- Teach your child to use sunscreen: hats, sunglasses, t-shirts (especially on the beach). Children need to wear not a toy, and the normal glasses with filters trivex or polycarbonate, which completely blocks out the sun ultraviolet rays ranges A and B.
- Don’t forget that first solar baby’s bath should not exceed 5-6 minutes, and after the formation of sun – 8-10 minutes. Sunbathing (sunbathe) with a child no more than 2-3 times a day, with breaks, during which the child must stay in the shade.
- To prevent overheating, frequently offer baby a drink, wipe with a damp cloth, towel over his face and exposed areas of the body.
What you should not do when the heat lose
- You cannot lubricate the affected sunburn area of the skin and alcohol products, because they additionally damage the skin and impede healing.
- Do not use on injured parts of the body substance fat basis (petrolatum or other thick ointments and a variety of oils: sea buckthorn, sunflower, etc.), as they impede the release of heat and sweat and, consequently, impede the healing of burns.
- Do not use for treatment of sunburn in children sprays and ointments containing benzocaine (benzocaine) that may cause irritation and allergic reaction on the skin of the child. Do not put on the burn the ice or ice water.
- Do not open bubbles on the skin at the site of burns. The bubbles that are opened independently, you can apply a topical antibiotic cream (eritromicina, tetracycline, etc.) and put a sterile gauze pad. In the absence of napkins you can use a clean ironed handkerchief.
Earlier we wrote about what insects need to fear summer.