– Every year in the world happens to be 15 million strokes. 5 million patients die, and about 5 million remain disabled – says about the scale vascular accidents neurologist Oleg Vinogradov. – About 80% of strokes are ischemic and 20% hemorrhagic.
Ischemic stroke is a blood clot clogs a cerebral artery. The blood does not flow to the brain and he dies. Hemorrhagic stroke is the rupture of the cerebral artery. Blood flows into the brain, and cells in the area die of hemorrhage.
The situation can be compared to the water pipe, – says Oleg Vinogradov. In one case, pipe covers, all dry is ischemic stroke. In another case a pipe burst and flooded everything is hemorrhagic stroke. The last fatal within the first month, almost half of the patients. Advances in the treatment of ischemic strokes is much higher.
Rule 1: Know about their risks
Doctors suggest everyone take a short quiz to understand whether you or your loved ones at risk. The main factors that significantly increase the risk of stroke, according to current data, such.
Hypertension. That is, the pressure is higher than 140/90 mm Hg. article
Elevated levels of bad cholesterol (low density lipoprotein or LDL). This figure depends on the presence of other risk factors. So, if a person has had a stroke, then it is considered high for LDL more than 1.4 mmol/L.
Excess weight: if the body mass index (BMI) above 25. To calculate the BMI, your height in metres erected in the square. And then body mass in kg divided by the resulting figure.
Smoking, including electronic cigarettes and other means of delivery of tobacco.
Irregular heart rhythm (atrial fibrillation).
Age: men over 55, women over 65 years of age.
Low physical activity: that is, less than 30 – 40 minutes of intense walking (or other physical activity) per day.
The abuse of alcohol.
Unfavorable heredity: cardiovascular disease in relatives.
The greater the number of points a person has, the higher the risk of vascular catastrophes.
Rule 2: Prophylaxis
Good news: most risk factors (except age, heredity, etc.) can be corrected, says Dr. Vinogradov. Someone can take measures that will minimize the risks of developing a stroke.
If you do find or suspect or have similar risk factors for stroke, as quickly as possible, please contact the doctors. Start with recording to the therapist. He will guide the specialists of the required profile depending on the tests and symptoms.
Change lifestyle: stop Smoking, follow a diet with consumption of fish, vegetables, fruits, limit the intake of salt and animal fats, get rid of excess weight do not abuse alcohol, add fiznagruzki.
Rule 3: be aware of alarming signs
Now apply the international standard definition of stroke symptoms, which in abbreviated form is called BE FAST (literally – “move quick”, eng.). It stands like this.
Balance (Balance): stable if a person stands on his feet.
Eyes (Eyes): if there is a sudden visual impairment.
Face (Face): if there are any in the face of something unusual, such as asymmetry.
Hands (Arms): if there are any strong weakness, where the arm is hanging like a whip.
Speech (Speech): have you encountered any problems with it.
Time (Time): do not waste time-call the emergency service (Ambulance).
Rule 4: Deadlines and standards of medical care
The first 4.5 hours after stroke (i.e., blockage by a blood clot. – Ed.) we call gold. If you start treatment at this time, above all the chance to save a significant portion of the brain, – says Oleg Vinogradov. – The first thing the patient should undergo CT scan (computed tomography of the brain). It shows that you suffered a stroke – ischemic or hemorrhagic. Their treatment is radically different.
In the most common ischemic stroke immediately after the CT scan, conducted thrombolytic therapy (if no contraindications). This is the administration of drugs to dissolve the clot. Once it is dissolved, blood flow to the brain is restored.
– Patients begin to move the hand that was hanging like a whip, to talk, if you were able to restore blood circulation within 4.5 hours from the onset of symptoms – describes the doctor.
If the CT scan shows that the clot is not dissolved or there are contraindications to thrombolysis, then apply the second type of treatment is thromboembolectomy. It is a modern method of mechanical removal of the thrombus. The doctors injected into the artery a stent in the form of a thin mesh, the clot is attached to it, and its output.
– Latest achievement – the ability to remove the clot with a stent in up to 24 hours after a stroke, says Vinogradov. – If the CT shows that there is something to save, remained viable brain areas that carry out the same operation.
As for hemorrhagic strokes, the chances of survival and recovery of the sick today, unfortunately, small. Studies have shown that the brain hemorrhage surgery little help. 46% of patients after a hemorrhagic stroke die within the first month.
Rule 5: prevent fatal errors
Experts call a few of the most frequent and life-threatening errors.
Waiting. The corner of the mouth down, a hand was hanging, nothing, nervous, self-will, – so often I think patients. And lose precious minutes and hours. An ambulance need to be called immediately!
Wrong prevention. Pressure and increased cholesterol, overweight, Smoking – risk factors present, and people every six months goes to pokapatsya. Supposedly, this is enough, the threat is removed.
– If you are offered some “magical” preparations from a series of “pokapatsya every six months”, the use for the prevention of stroke will be zero, – warns Oleg Vinogradov. – It is important to perform a full range of measures. And not once in six months or a year, but always.
“Drug holidays”. Often patients stop taking medication. Pressure and cholesterol improved, going on holiday, I’m afraid to put the liver is the most frequent explanation. “Your liver will be enough for 200 – 300 years of taking necessary medicines, if not to kill it with alcohol,” say the doctors. If a person has had a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), the prescribed medicines you need to take for life. Otherwise at any moment could happen a new stroke.