The doctors talked about the five most common cancer types, how they manifest themselves when it’s time to go to a specialist, and what can be done to treat them. Their opinion leads health info.
Despite the fact that this is the most common type of cancer in the cancer statistics, it is a separate line.
This disease is of two types: melanoma and skin cancer non-melanoma, the vast majority of cases of skin cancer.
The most common form is basal cell carcinoma: a tumor that develops from cells of the deep layer of the epidermis. In the world put millions of these diagnoses annually.
Exact statistics no one, because skin cancer (except melanoma) is not taken into account in the overall calculations. Skin cancer non-melanoma, is highly curable, does not give metastases and in 99% of cases does not lead to death.
The symptoms of basal cell carcinoma is the redness and flaking on the skin that long to pass.
Often this cancer appears on the face. A common method of treatment – photodynamic therapy: it allows you to remove the tumor and preserve the aesthetic appearance of the skin.
Actually melanoma is a very dangerous type of tumor. It occurs when mole on the human body regenerate in malignant education. In melanoma incidence at about 200 thousand people. This type of cancer frequently and rapidly metastasizes, including to the brain.
In the diagnosis of the disease in an advanced stage 80% of patients with melanoma do not live five years.
To the doctor usually treated with suspicious moles that have changed color or shape, grow, and bleed.
If there is a possibility of melanoma, a doctor orders a complete examination to find out how far the tumor, whether it metastases. Then the mole is removed and sent for histological examination to confirm the diagnosis.
“If melanoma has already metastasized, the patient is administered drug therapy. In the treatment of melanoma greater efficiency shows immunotherapy, targeted therapy. Someone will approach and traditional chemotherapy. In order to treat them properly, it is necessary to study the morphology of the tumor and see which genes have mutation,” explains MD, Director of the Center of laser and photodynamic diagnosis and therapy of tumors of the mnioi. Herzen Elena Filonenko.
Not counting skin cancer, lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world.
It also most often leads to death in 20% of all deaths from malignant tumors have lung cancer. And only 5% of people diagnosed will live 10 more years – all because this disease is often detected at a late stage when it is incurable.
Worldwide men develop lung cancer twice as often women.
The main reason, of course, Smoking (men smoke more often than women) – in smokers the risk of lung cancer is 15 times higher than those who never smoked. But affect the development of lung cancer and other harmful conditions while working on production, where mostly occupied by men – for example, in the oil industry, in mining and processing of coal in the steel industry.
Hookah Smoking, contrary to popular belief, is also not harmless – it increases the risk of lung cancer doubled.
Lung cancer usually suffer from men over 60.
There are several types of lung cancer: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, large-cell carcinoma and small-cell lung cancer, adenokistoznaya and mucoepidermoid cancer. Lately often there are tumors of several types. Lung cancer also happens to be Central and peripheral.
In the later stages he gives multiple metastases in the liver, brain, bones, other lung. Prognosis and treatment depend heavily on what kind of tumor is detected in the patient and at what stage.
“In the early stages of lung cancer in most cases occurs without clinical manifestations. Identify the disease at such an early phase of development with an annual preventive medical examination with required radiography, and the better – a CT scan of the chest. The development of the disease is suspected on a long persistent cough with blood streaks in sputum. Unfortunately, often patients, especially smokers with experience, these symptoms do not pay enough attention,” – says MD, head of the thoracoabdominal oncosurgery of mnioi. Herzen Andrei Ryabov.
In the later stages appear constant shortness of breath, aching chest pain, hemoptysis, General weakness and fever. Patients often complain of pain of various localization (due to metastases in the bones, nerve damage). To detect the disease at this point is not difficult, but treatment is of little help.
The most dangerous type of lung cancer – small cell. It rapidly metastasizes throughout the body. If the patient detects small cell lung cancer at any stage of treatment – chemotherapy, radiation therapy must be started immediately.
At small cell lung cancer in the first or third stage may be an efficient operation – remove the lung or part thereof. Depending on the stage of the disease it allows to cure from 30 to 80% of patients.
If surgical treatment is for any reason impossible, the alternative operation can be radiation therapy: it can help recover 15-30% of patients with small cell lung cancer initial stages.
Radiation therapy can also assign additional method of treatment after surgery.
Unfortunately, in the last stages of lung cancer the probability of death is 100%. Doctors can only offer palliative care: to extend life and ease the pain of the patient.
Breast cancer (breast cancer)
This is the most common cancer in women. In General, the likelihood of developing breast cancer is 12%, that is, one in eight women in the course of life faced with this diagnosis.
The probability to get sick increases rapidly after the age of 40-50.
Breast tumors are divided into hormone-dependent and hormone-dependent not. The first type is less aggressive and better treated.
Breast cancer is also genetically determined – it is much more dangerous than non-hereditary forms. Therefore those women whose relatives are already sick, need a particularly careful approach to diagnosis and treatment.
In General, breast cancer is treated pretty well. In the early stages of efficiency of over 90%. And survival on the first stage and is approaching 100%.
According to the head of the Department of Oncology of the breast of mnioi. Herzen Aziz Styracaceae, now breast cancer often detect early enough: even 20-30 years ago, only 40% of tumors were found at the initial stages, now about 70%.
Not always when breast cancer is necessary to remove the breast. On the first or second stage removed only sector of the gland where the tumor is. In the later stages you have to remove the gland completely, but due to the implants, doctors can keep an aesthetic appearance.
Depending on the stage of the disease and the type of tumor, the operation can be complemented with chemotherapy, hormonal or radiation therapy.
If the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes (usually axillary, subclavian and subscapularis), they also have to be removed.
Today the procedure is much more gentle than in the 1970-1980-ies: then the surgeons immediately removed all of the lymph nodes, and sometimes muscle – because of this, women have developed problems with arm lymphedema (swelling).
Now remove only the affected lymph nodes, and after surgery rehabilitation: giving load on the hand, make the vacuum drainage. Consequently, women almost do not collide with postoperative complications.
To the prevention of breast cancer include pregnancy and breast-feeding.
Many people believe that oral contraceptives (OC) increase the risk of breast cancer – doctors agree that it is not. Probably even on the contrary: in some cases, OK can reduce the risk of cancer.
By the way, about the pregnancy: if breast cancer sick young woman, she will be able to have a baby and after treatment. If doctors prescribe chemotherapy or radiation therapy, they offer a pre-freeze egg. It is possible to become pregnant two years after recovery.
Prostate cancer (prostate cancer)
Prostate cancer – the second most common cancer in men.
At-risk men over 50 years – they should regularly visit the urologist and undergo the survey, including to monitor the level of prostate-specific antigen in the blood.
In the initial stages of prostate cancer no specific symptoms.
More common symptoms of another disease of the prostate adenoma: it is difficulty urinating, frequent trips to the toilet, discomfort with urination.
Prostate adenoma – a benign disease, it has nothing to do with cancer and can not degenerate into cancer.
But these two diseases can develop in parallel. Often man comes to the urologist with symptoms of BPH, and in the process of examination, he found the cancer.
In the later stages symptoms of prostate cancer are the same as any oncological disease: poor health, sudden unexplained weight loss, weakness, bone pain (from metastases).
There are some specific symptoms that are characteristic of prostate cancer at later stages is abdominal pain, severe difficulty urinating.
Prostate cancer responds well to treatment. Almost 100% of patients with localized prostate cancer with proper treatment will live more than five years, 98% – more than 10 years. Even when detected at a later stage, has all chances to live four to five years or more.
The main thing in the treatment of prostate cancer is that for a long time, you can save the patient not only lives, but also the high quality of life.
Up to 85% of tumors of the prostate – hormone-dependent, and therefore respond well to hormonal therapy. This treatment, unlike chemotherapy, allows you to lead a full life.
Even if prostate cancer is discovered at a late stage, hormone therapy can inhibit the development of cancer, and all this time the patient will lead a normal life. Then, when hormone therapy ceases to work, another two or three years to fight the disease more aggressive “chemistry”.
We had cases when patients with end-stage prostate cancer with metastasis to the bone, lived for 8-10 years on hormone therapy, went to work and did what healthy people do. In the end they, of course, the required “chemistry”, she gave them a few more years of life.
In the remaining 15% of cases the swelling of the prostate not sensitive to the hormones are more difficult to treat.
Patients with a tumor immediately prescribed chemotherapy, the prognosis for them is worse than for patients with hormone-dependent tumor.
One of the main treatment methods are surgery, during which the gland is removed entirely. Men are often afraid or even refuse surgical treatment, they are afraid of that start problems with urination, erectile function.
But today surgery has made great strides, including in the plastic and reconstruction of bodies after removal of the tumor is to restore the urinary tract and keep erectile function is possible.
According to Nikolay Vorobyov, the majority of the operated patients problems with urination, incontinence of urine is not observed, on the part men maintained an erection.
Sometimes prostate cancer can generally be treated. There is a term – clinically insignificant cancer: it is a small tumor that does not develop or develops very slowly.
With a tumor can live for decades and die generally from another illness.
Abroad many men with clinically insignificant prostate cancer choose dynamic monitoring, but in our country the mentality is different: the majority still do not want to go with the “ticking time bomb” – they prefer to be treated and to remove the tumor.
Colorectal cancer (cancer colorectal)
Colorectal cancer occurs almost equally frequently in both sexes. The risk increases after 50 years.
In addition to the General symptoms, which may be suspected cancer is an unexpected weight loss, weakness, fever colorectal cancer there are a number of specific symptoms.
First and foremost is blood in the stool, change in form of stool (diarrhea or constipation), pain and spasms in the abdomen.
Sometimes blood in the stool is not visible, but bleeding in the gut is still there – then the first symptom of colorectal cancer may become anemic.
Confirm that blood loss occurs in the gut, you can use the stool for occult blood.
If there is a suspicion of cancer, the person making the examination of the bowel – a colonoscopy. Bleeding in the colon and rectum can be not only cancer, but also because of the polyps.
About 90% of them are harmless, but the remaining 10% are adenomatous polyps, which are highly likely to degenerate into cancer.
If during the examination the doctor will find adenomatous polyps, he will remove them. Those who have ever detect these polyps, you need to carefully monitor your health and undergo regular colonoscopy.
Colorectal cancer is often hereditary. At particular risk are those whose relatives have repeatedly ill with cancer of the colon and rectum, whose family are spread multiple polyps of the intestine. Even if colorectal cancer was sick a relative, but under the age of 50 years is also a reason to be suspicious.
People with high genetic risk suggest from a young age to be examined for hidden blood in the stool and often a colonoscopy.
Treatment of colorectal cancer is complex. First radiotherapy, then the tumor is removed along with a segment of the intestine, and then, if necessary, prescribe chemotherapy.
Early surgery for many types of colorectal cancer has led to the fact that the doctors were completely removed with the rectum, and an analogue of the anus is formed on the anterior abdominal wall. This, of course, brought great discomfort and reduced quality of life, even if the disease managed to win.
Now, surgeons can often save the sphincter and, therefore, after the operation, the bowel movement will happen naturally.
On the second, third stage can be cured from 50 to 90% of patients with colorectal cancer. At the last stage, when the tumor has metastasized, the chance to live more than five years is reduced to about 10%.