Venus has almost the same size as Earth, consists of almost the same material and rotates around the same star. It would seem that Venus should have similar conditions and on the surface, but they are radically different from earth.
The surface temperature of this planet reaches 500 degrees, the atmosphere is rich in carbon dioxide, the sky floating clouds of sulfuric acid. Why did this happen?
According to scientists, Venus once could have the same conditions as modern Earth. In the past, the planet might even have oceans on the surface. As soon as the Sun became hotter and brighter (natural consequences of aging stars), Venus rising surface temperatures, gradually vaporizing all the water of the oceans and seas.
With a huge amount of water vapor in the atmosphere, the planet turned into a huge greenhouse, which further increases the temperature. Significant internal heat of the planet continued to produce magma which poured lava flows.
So ever look like Venus
Difficulties with the study
Scientists do not yet know what caused such large differences in the formation of the surface of Venus and the Earth, even if the two planets originally had the same conditions. People still know about Venus is much less than on the other planets of the Solar system, in particular because this planet is unique in many ways.
For example, for the observation of thick sulfuric clouds and the surface need a powerful radar. Therefore, to explore the surface of Venus is much more difficult than the visible surface of the moon or mercury. A high surface temperature (470 degrees) means that conventional electronics can’t work there more than a few hours.
The surface of Venus, photo apparatus “Venera-13”
This is not Mars, where the Rovers can drive on the surface for over ten years. Due to the heat and hidden from the human eye surface, in the last few decades, Venus has researched so little.
In the 21st century and was equipped two missions to Venus: “Venus Express” European space Agency, which operated from 2006 to 2014, and the spacecraft “akatsuki” Japan aerospace exploration Agency, which is still in orbit.
Earlier also explored Venus: between 1960 and 1980-ies. There were sent about 35 missions. The mission is NASA’s Mariner 2 was the first spacecraft that got the first pictures, flying past Venus in 1962.
The first images of the surface we got from the Soviet apparatus Venera-9 after he successfully landed in 1975. But the last mission, which NASA launched to Venus, took place in 1989. The spaceship “Magellan” sent us a photo of almost the entire surface using the radar method of research, before burned in the planet’s atmosphere in 1994.
The mission of “Magellan”, 1982
Back to Venus?
Over the last few years have seen several missions from NASA and the European space Agency. Now researchers are looking for new methods to radar studies, while more time with Mars and the moon.
The study of Venus will take time and money, but it’s worth it. Perhaps we can finally understand why and how Venus became what it is now. We will be able to understand how can develop our Land.
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