For the past 21 years of the international space station at the speed of 27 thousand kilometers per hour allows you to better explore the space. During this time, ISS has made more than 330 revolutions around the Earth. And since November 2000 it is the only place a permanent human presence in space.
How it all began
In 1984 us President Ronald Reagan announced the beginning of work on creation of the space station. In 1988, the project was called Freedom (Freedom). Then on it worked together USA, ESA (European space Agency), Canada and Japan.
Partners saw the future project as massive a managed station, separate modules which will be put into orbit to deliver the space Shuttle. However, by the early ‘ 90s, it became clear that the cost of this project will be not less than space, as the station itself. It was agreed that to implement such an ambitious plan will be possible only through international cooperation.
Therefore, on 17 June 1992 between the United States and Russia signed an agreement on cooperation in space exploration. Then the joint forces of the space agencies of the two States was created the project “Mir – Shuttle”. In the framework of the American “space Shuttle” to perform flights to the Russian space station “Mir” joint U.S.-Russian crew on Board. Further, the space Agency came to the General idea of creating a single international space station orbiting the Earth.
In 1993 in the US, many politicians were against the construction of orbital space station. In June 1993, the U.S. Congress discussed a proposal for waiver of the International space station. This proposal was not accepted by a margin of only one vote: 215 votes for refusal, 216 votes for the construction of the station.
So, September 2, 1993 Vice-President al Gore and the head of the Council of Ministers of the Russian Federation Victor Chernomyrdin announced a new project “truly international space station”. From this point there was an official title “international space station”, although parallel were used and the working title is space station alpha.
The construction of the station
The agreement on the creation of the ISS was signed on 29 January 1998 in Washington by representatives of Canada, governments of member States of the European space Agency (ESA), Japan, Russia and the United States.
The construction of the International space station began in November 1998.
Given the individual changes of the ISS had the following structure and organization of work:
to the station, except for Russia and the United States, involving Canada, Japan and the countries of the European community;
the station will consist of 2 integrated segments (Russian and us) and will be gradually built in orbit out of individual modules.
The construction of the ISS in earth orbit began on 20 November 1998 with the launch of functional cargo block Zarya. On December 7, 1998 it was docked American connecting module “unity”, delivered to orbit by the Shuttle endeavour.
The first blocks of the station “Zarya” and “unity” 1999 / NASA
The first visitors to the station were Russian cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev and U.S. astronaut Robert Cabana. This was on 10 December 1998.
12 July 2000 the station was added to the service module “Zvezda”, which at the stage of deployment of the ISS was its basic unit, the basic place to live and work crew.
In November of the same year arrived at the station the crew of the first expedition: William shepherd (commander), Yuri Gidzenko (pilot) and Sergei Krikalev (flight engineer). Since the station is permanently manned.
At that time, the ISS consisted of three modules, each of which were the size of a small room. Today is a huge space laboratory the size of a football field. This date is counting the continuous stay aboard the station, teams of astronauts.
Docked unit of the plant “star” with the ship “Progress” 2000 / NASA
The stages of development of the station
The ISS consists of 14 main modules: the us – unity, destiny, Quest, “tranquility”, “Dome”, “Leonardo”, “Harmony”; and the Russian Zarya, Zvezda, Pirs, Poisk, Rassvet; the European Columbus and Japanese Kibo.
20 Nov 1998
The output of the first element of the ISS Rassvet, the Russian ship “proton K”. Provides energy, storage, orientation. Was home before the end of the initial Assembly.
4 Dec 1998
The us space Shuttle “endeavour” returns the first module-the node “unity” that connects the American part of the station with the Russian.
12 Jul 2000
Module docked with the service station “Star”, which provides basic living quarters for extended crew, has life support systems, attitude and orbit control.
7 Feb 2001
The crew of space Shuttle Atlantis during mission STS-98 to the unity module was attached scientific American module “Destini”.
12 Jul 2006
The station receives the main airlock module “Quest”, which is used for spacewalks in us and Russian spacesuits.
14 Sep 2001
Docked with the Pirs module, which provides the ISS with additional docking port for Soyuz and Progress, and is also used for EVAs.
9 Sep 2006
The Shuttle Atlantis delivered to the ISS two solar panels, radiators of the temperature control system of the American segment.
23 Oct 2007
Aboard the Shuttle “discovery” arrived on the American module “Harmony”. It is temporarily docked to the unity module. 14 November 2007, the module “Harmony” was on a regular basis connected with the module “Destini”. The construction of the main U.S. segment of the ISS was completed.
7 Feb 2008
Docked laboratory module “Columbus”, commissioned by the European space Agency.
14 March and 4 June 2008
Docked to two of the three main sections of the laboratory module “Kibo”, developed by the Japanese aerospace exploration Agency.
12 Nov 2009
To the station docked to a small research module MIM-2, shortly before the start is called “Search”.
May 18 2010
Successfully docked to the ISS Russian mini-research module Rassvet (MIM-1).
8 Feb 2010
ISS gets the third and final module-node “tranquility”. It has advanced life support systems that recycle waste water for reuse by the crew and the production of oxygen for breathing of the crew. Then formed a module, the Observatory “Dome”, which is perfectly visible robotic surgery and docking of spacecraft, and Observatory for Earth observation.
May 14 2010
Joins mini research module Rassvet, which is used for docking and cargo storage aboard the station.
The international space station at the beginning of construction (1999) and on completion (2011)
Technical characteristics of the ISS
Widthof 108.5 meters
The heightof 20 meters
1 Feb 2003 wrecked the American space Shuttle “Columbia”. On Board were seven crew members, they all died. The cause of the disaster was the destruction of the outer heat shield layer on the left wing of the plane.
The accident Shuttle “Columbia” was a great tragedy for the US space program / NASA
Since then and until July 2005, the United States did not carry out Shuttle flights, so not having independent access to the station.
18 April 2005 – the head of NASA Michael Griffin at a hearing of the Senate Committee on space exploration and science stated the need for a temporary reduction of scientific research in the us segment of the station. It was required for release of funds on boosting the development and construction of a new manned vehicle (CEV).
It was necessary to ensure the independent US access to the station.
After the disaster of “Columbia” was reduced from three to two the number of members of the long-term ISS crews. This was due to the fact that the supply of materials required for the life of the crew, carried out only by Russian cargo spacecraft “Progress”.
July 26, 2005 the Shuttle flights resumed with the successful launch of discovery. Until the end of operation of the Shuttle was planned to perform 17 flights until 2010, during these flights to the ISS delivered the equipment and modules required for the completion of the station, and modernization of the equipment, in particular – canadian manipulator Canadarm.
Ukrainians on the ISS
September 9, 2006 Shuttle Atlantis delivered to the ISS two segment structures of the ISS in the framework of the mission STS-115. Station with two solar panels and radiators of the temperature control system of the American segment.
The international space station in September 2006 / NASA
For the installation of solar panels said the NASA engineer of Ukrainian descent Heidi Stefanyshyn-Piper. She became the first Ukrainian on Board the ISS, which carried out the spacewalk, but still so important for the development and operation of the station.
Heidi Stefanyshyn-Piper on the ISS as part of mission STS-115 / NASA
Other interesting facts about the ISS
Today, the international space station is a multipurpose space research complex in activities which involve 15 countries: Belgium, Brazil, Germany, Denmark, Spain, Italy, Canada, Netherlands, Norway, Russia, USA, France, Switzerland, Sweden, Japan.
At the heart of building a station has a modular principle. The construction of the ISS was done by successive addition to the complex the next module or unit, which is connected to the already delivered into orbit.
Other modules of the station. The station also had three cargo modules: Leonardo, Raphael and Donatello, which are periodically delivered into orbit scientific equipment and cargo for resupply of the ISS. “Multi-purpose logistics modules” was delivered in the cargo Bay of the Shuttle and docked with the unity module.
Converted module “Leonardo”, since March 2011, included in the number of modules station called “Hermetic multifunction module” (Permanent Multipurpose Module, PMM).
Attached mini research module Rassvet / NASA
Movement along the orbit. The station completes one revolution around the Earth in approximately 90 minutes and about half the time she spends in the shadow of our planet. ISS is almost 16 revolutions per day at the approximate speed of 27 thousand kilometers per hour.
The altitude of the ISS orbit. It is constantly changing. Due to the friction on the sparse atmosphere is the gradual deceleration and loss of altitude. Ships that dock with the station, helping her to gain altitude.
15 Jun 2011 the height of the ISS orbit increased by 10,2 km and amounted to 374,7 kilometers. 29 Jun 2011 orbit height made 384,7 kilometers.
The international space station that orbits the Earth / NASA
To average height of 405 kilometers of the station has risen 18 may 2015. The last adjustment took place on 8 November 2019. The ship “Progress MS-12” raised the ISS by 800 meters. Therefore, now she flies over the Earth at a distance 416,6 kilometers.
About spicy. Toilet at the station is designed for both men and women and looks exactly the same as on Earth, but has a number of design features. The toilet has the clips for the legs, it includes a powerful air pumps. The astronaut is fastened with special spring mount to the toilet seat, then turns on a powerful fan and opens the suction hole, where the air flow carries away all the waste.
The toilet on the ISS / NASA
Space bed. The astronauts have their own greenhouse where they grow herbs. Fresh herbs grown in microgravity has been officially included in the menu on the International space station.
First grown on the ISS salad / NASA
The danger of space debris. Because the ISS is moving at a relatively low orbit, there is some probability of collision of the station or the astronauts facing the open space, with the so-called space debris. Given the cosmic speed in orbit, even small objects can cause serious damage to the station.
To avoid such collisions with the Earth is remote tracking of space debris. If at a certain distance from the ISS you receive such a threat, the station crew will receive a corresponding warning to correct the course. The engines can propel the station to a higher orbit and thus avoid a collision. In case of late detection of danger, the crew evacuated from ISS.
The hole in the panel radiator of the space Shuttle “endeavour” as a result of collision with space debris / NASA
Space costs for the construction of the ISS. The cost of construction and operation of the ISS was much larger than originally planned. In 2005, according to ESA, since the beginning of work on the ISS project (late 1980-ies) and to its intended end (2010) would be spent about 100 billion euros ($157 billion). However, currently the completion of the operation of the station is scheduled for no earlier than 2024. The total costs of all countries are evaluated in much greater amount.
To accurately assess the cost of the ISS is very difficult. For example, it is not clear how to pay the contribution of Russia, as the Russian space Agency uses a much lower dollar prices than other partners.
The middle of one of the modules of the ISS / NASA
The ISS crew today. Now the ISS is already the 61st crew, which includes Russians Alexander Skvortsov and Oleg skripochka, Americans, Kristina cook, Andrew Morgan, and Jessica Meir, as well as Italian Luca Parmitano. His work started on 3 October 2019, from the moment you undock from the station of the ship Soyuz MS-12 and will end in February 2020 since undocking from the ISS vehicle Soyuz MS-13.
15 Nov astronauti Kristina cook and Jessica Meir has carried out a spacewalk during which the repair began alpha magnetic spectrometer (AMS-02), which is delivered to the station in 2011.
Read more about the first in the history of independent access to space women astronauts read here.
Sixty-first long-duration crew of the ISS / NASA
How to monitor station
All the important that concerns the life and work of the station, you can track on Techno 24. We will provide you with timely and quality information on the latest developments, studies, records and other interesting facts.
If you want to see one of the 16 sunrises that can watch the astronauts on the ISS, or to see the Earth from the ISS – it can be done on the official NASA stream.
Watch NASA Live Stream from the ISS:
We also recommend you to visit the official page of the ISS on the NASA website, where you can find all the latest information, plans, events, research and direct communication with the crew. By the way, they often spend online conversation with your audience where almost anyone can ask a question to an astronaut on the ISS.
Be aware of the latest news on the station will also help the official Twitter of the project. Here’s how the training of American astronauts before the flight to the station.
.@astro_luca & I trained for several months at @NASA_Johnson to perform these 4 spacewalks. We used a variety of ways to simulate repairs: a large pool called the Neutral Buoyancy Lab, a suspension harness called ARGOS & virtual reality. We’re well prepared for this complex task! pic.twitter.com/kLaGokGZ3C
— Andrew Morgan (@AstroDrewMorgan) November 19, 2019
In addition you will always be welcome to the official Facebook page of the station.
To follow the international space station rotates around the Earth and what country is she now flies in the application ISS on Live Now Android and IOS.
More news on the events from the world of technology, gadgets, artificial intelligence, and space, see Techno