The share of renewable in electricity generation is increasing globally. It is time to transfer to the CO2-neutral heating system and in residential buildings, experts say.
Coal, diesel and gas are the main resources through which humanity heats their homes. Incineration, estimated by experts, are released into the atmosphere about a quarter of all greenhouse gases, leading to climate change on the planet.
But to sit in the name of saving the climate is not necessarily cold, the founder of the Institute for passive houses (Passivhaus Institut) in Darmstadt Professor Wolfgang Feist (Feist Wolfgang): “Buildings worldwide, to heat and climatically neutral, if you use renewable sources of energy.”
Insulation of houses gives a great savings
To start, however, it is with the energy modernization of housing stock so as not to waste heat. “If you build a new house with good insulation and equip them with modern ventilation systems, – said Feist in an interview with DW, it is possible to save 80 to 90% of required energy, and energy sanitation of old buildings saves in 75 – 80%”.
Missing 10 – 20% of energy can provide renewable sources. At the same time in different regions of the world they may be different, but the most important heat sources in the future, the Professor believes heat pumps run on electricity generated exclusively from renewable energy sources (RES).
Separate houses, in his opinion, it makes sense to heat the raw material wood – pellets or sawdust, but not entire city blocks or industrial facilities. In this case, the consumption of biomass would be excessive.
The heating plant, solar panels and computers
The Frankfurt am main banking capital of Germany – set the goal to become, by 2050 CO2-neutral city. Officials rely on a combination of different technologies, told DW Paul Fay (Paul Fay) of the energy division of the magistrate. Together with scientists FAI has developed a strategic energy plan of modernization, including construction of passive houses and administrative buildings, and the rehabilitation of old housing.
One of the necessary for home heating energy will produce installed on the roofs of the solar battery, the other part will be supplied centrally from power plants, burning trash and wood, as well as from the compute centers at the expense of heat, which produce computers and which is not used in any way. But the biggest prospects, I think in Frankfurt am main, heat pumps.
How does a heat pump work
The principle of operation of the heat pump is approximately the same as at the refrigerator. In a closed multistage system of pipes to produce heat in the compressor and cold in the evaporator. Wherein the liquid coolant circulating within the system, extracts thermal energy from the environment – air, ground or groundwater, and pump heats her house.
To the pump also needs energy – electric, and how much – depends on the source of heat. Marek Miara (Marek Miara) from the Institute of solar energy systems Companies named Fraunhofer (Fraunhofer ISE) compared 60 different systems with heat pumps installed in German homes of old buildings and came to this result: “the Heat pumps used as heat source air, consume an average of one kilowatt-hour of electricity to generate three kilowatt hours of heat energy. And heat pumps that use as a heat source the subsoil or ground water, generating an average of 3.9 times more heat”. The efficiency of heat pumps in new buildings is even higher.
How to accelerate the deployment of CO2-neutral heating?
In the scenarios of transition to CO2-neutral heat supply it a heat pump is a Central value. They are already in different countries of the world increasingly began to replace the boilers for hydrocarbons – diesel, gas, coal.
Thomas Nowak from the European Association of heat pump manufacturers (European Heat Pump Association (EHPA) calls this trend is very positive, looks forward to “creating a mass market and the onset of the “Golden age” heat pumps”. According to organizacii 2018 in the world was purchased 18 million of heat pumps, including 1.3 million in Europe. Each year, the Association, the world market of heating is increased by 10%
In Europe particularly many heat pumps installed in Scandinavia, where already a CO2-neutral sources – water and wind – accounted for the lion’s share of power generation.
According to estimates of the Fraunhofer ISE, in Sweden, for example, the carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the use of such pumps are 90% lower than gas heating. The average for the EU countries, their climatic effect is not so high – 60%, and in Germany even less – only 30%. But the sustainability of such a heating system will continue to grow with increasing share of RES in total electricity production, which is already exceeded in Germany, 40%, and in 2030, in accordance with the plan of the German government, will reach at least 65%.
To accelerate the deployment of heat pumps could policy. “What we need now is a ban on the installation of new boilers running on diesel, they cause climate especially damaging, says Nicholas Besser (Besser Nicolas) of a German environmental organization Deutsche Umwelthilfe (DUH). – Gas heating causes the environment a little less damage, but it contributes to climate warming. Therefore, installation of gas boilers should be prohibited not later than 2025”.