The Ukrainian language had to go through a lot of troubles: Valuev circular, EMS decree, Russification, and so on. The status of the Ukrainian language guaranteed by the Constitution, but the nuances of daily consumption have long had to adjust the law. However, the Verkhovna Rada only on 25 April passed a law, although not like it all.
As you know, adequate law before that Ukraine was not, accordingly and adjust the Ukrainians did not feel.
In 2012 adopted the law of Kivalov-Kolesnichenko, which allowed to replace the state language regional. That is, the fact that 10% of the population is native. It turned out that in 8 oblasts and Crimea is Russian language Ukrainian is completely replaced, even supplanted it in Russian taught in schools, and officials used it on official level. Only 28 February 2018 it declared unconstitutional and abolished.
Since then and until April 25, 2019 no law was not. What fate now awaits this law – is unclear, because some MPs also called it unconstitutional.
How will the law on language
For more than 2 months of delays and more than 2 thousand edits – language became the national symbol. This means that every Ukrainian should know it at least at a basic level. To this end, the government will create free courses of the state language.
For lack of knowledge of Ukrainian will be fined:
• For the evasion of legal requirements of the Commissioner for the protection of the language – a fine of 1770-3400 hryvnia.
• Violation of rules of use of language in administration and law enforcement agencies – from 3400-6800 hryvnia.
• Punishment in the sphere of culture, education and advertising from 3400-5100 hryvnia.
• For print media are introduced fines 6800-8500 hryvnia.
• For the second violation within a year can pay 8500-11900 hryvnia.
The system of penalties will be introduced for 3 years. The drafters of the law think that this is enough for language learning. In fact, if you are dealing with people: for example in business, public events or appearances that the Ukrainian language is compulsory for use. If that sounds foreign, then the translation must be on the state.
How to talk politics? They, like the entire public sector, are now forced to go to the Ukrainian. The level of proficiency they will have to check the inspector. In the list of those who must know the language: the President, the Ministers, their deputies, judges, prosecutors, MPs and other officials. The law covers almost all spheres of life of Ukrainians: from transportation to cultural.
But what about people who don’t speak Ukrainian or understand it? Everything is very simple:
- For personal communication they can use any language;
- They are always open free courses of the state.
Movies in the original, now will not? Will. According to the law, 10% of the tapes of Ukrainian cinema may be of foreign language. However, with the subtitles. If the show is planned without subtitles, then this should inform us in advance.
What else will change?
Separate rules are now for television. If earlier national and regional channels was to provide 75% of Ukrainian content, but now these quotas are regulated clearly by the law. For local channels the scheme is as follows – 20% of the programs can be foreign language, and in the Crimean Tatar channels, the share of Ukrainian programs must be at least 30%.
How many Ukrainians speak Ukrainian? In Ukraine 28.1% of the population speak Russian at home, 15.8 percent – speak only in Russian. 46% of the citizens of the house communicate mainly or wholly in Ukrainian, 24,9% speak both languages equal.
How does all this affect Russian-speaking population? If to speak about daily life – no way. You are free to talk in the language what you want, but in public spheres – here you need to communicate clearly in Ukrainian.
As if there was not, and Ukraine is not the first country in the world that actively defends the rights of their language. So, France in 1996, has imposed quotas on foreign songs on the radio. And Estonia since 1991, after the restoration of independence, has created a language on. The system works very simply – don’t – pay the fine and learn.
Generally, in most European countries, in order to get the job, you must know the state language. Nobody forbids to speak in the languages which are convenient. But at the state level should only be heard in the state language.
Oleksandr Vilkul spoke out against the language law. Right? No. Recommendations to Ukraine on creation of the law “On ensuring the functioning of Ukrainian as the state language” was provided by the European Commission. According to him, the state language situation in Ukraine needs extra protection and consolidation at the state level. Policy in the field of language requires adequate guarantees for the preservation of the state language as a tool of integration of society.
Which countries did not support the language law in Ukraine? Hungary is not the only country that expressed their discontent, in the list, of course, and Russia. The main argument of the Ukrainian language law infringes on the rights of national minorities, and forbidden to speak in Russian. But it is a question the law is settled: 2023 Ukrainian is the language of the educational process. The representatives of national minorities to pre-school and primary education in their language, then – exclusively Ukrainian.