The health Ministry told what the tests are enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) for coronavirus, and also to whom and in what cases they will pursue.
This was reported by the public health Center in Facebook.
Immuno-enzyme analysis implies a search for antibodies to the coronavirus in the early or late stages of the disease when PCR tests show a weak or negative result. Method ELISA test detects antibodies of two types: M and G. If it is M, it indicates acute disease process, if G is the person ill or infected with the virus and developed antibodies to the disease.
The use of ELISA tests to detect antibodies COVID-19 was regulated by the order of Ministry of health of may 20, 2020 by decision No. 1227. First, however, diagnosis will, as before, to use the results of PCR tests.
The fact that after the response of immunity to getting the virus in the body, the contagiousness (contagious) virus falls. During the first weeks after the first symptoms, the accuracy of PCR test almost completely, but after this week and in the period before the onset of symptoms of this type of tests can give inaccurate results.
So, ELISA testing can be offered to patients with symptoms of coronavirus, patients with pneumonia, contact persons, persons in need of planned hospitalization or surgery. First, however, to carry out the ELISA, and then, in the case of suspicious results, confirm them by PCR will be medical staff working with patients COVID-19 employees of the laboratories that process the samples for coronavirus, employees of pathology, forensic Bureau offices participating in the autopsy, including the sampling of sectional material, the staff of the National police, the National guard, state border service and other medical and pharmaceutical workers.
Given that physicians, employees of the national guard and the national police should undergo regular diagnostics, ELISA testing will help to reduce the load on polymerase chain reaction analysis. In addition, the planned tests enzyme immunoassay for those patients who have symptoms COVID-19, but the results of PCR tests for them were negative.
As for differences between the ELISA and PCR tests, for the IFA test the necessary laboratory conditions and special equipment. At the same time, examines blood serum, not the blood itself, as in the case of the rapid tests, and not material to smear, as in the case of PCR.
ELISA test detects immune response to a virus – antibody levels. Rapid tests also detect the antibodies in the body in response to antigen, however, have low sensitivity and specificity compared to ELISA tests.
PCR study reveals the virus, i.e. its genetic material. Thus, a positive result of ELISA test is an additional basis for carrying out the PCR studies.